Chytridiomycosis in fire salamander

Chytridiomycosis (BD): The Devastating Fungal Disease Affecting Amphibians Worldwide

Chytridiomycosis, also known as Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (BD), is a fungal disease that has caused global declines in amphibian populations. First identified in the late 1990s, BD has been responsible for the decline or extinction of hundreds of amphibian species, making it one of the most significant threats to amphibians worldwide. This article will explore the causes, significance, species affected, distribution, transmission, clinical signs, diagnosis, treatment, and management of chytridiomycosis.


BD is caused by a fungal pathogen, Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, which belongs to the phylum Chytridiomycota. This fungus infects the skin of amphibians, causing changes in the skin’s structure and leading to death in many cases. The fungus lives on keratinized tissues, such as the outer layers of skin, in both adults and tadpoles.


BD has become one of the most significant threats to amphibians worldwide. The disease has caused declines or extinctions of hundreds of amphibian species, leading to the loss of biodiversity and ecosystem functions. Amphibians play a crucial role in many ecosystems, including controlling insect populations and serving as prey for higher trophic levels.


Affected BD affects a wide range of amphibians, including frogs, toads, newts, and salamanders. The disease has been identified on every continent except Antarctica, affecting both wild and captive populations.


BD was first identified in the late 1990s in Australia and has since been found in many countries worldwide, including the United States, Europe, Asia, and Africa. The disease is widespread and has been responsible for declines or extinctions of amphibian populations globally.


BD is highly infectious and can be transmitted through direct contact with infected animals or indirectly through the environment. The fungus can survive in moist environments and can be spread by water, soil, and equipment used in amphibian research or management. The fungus is also spread through the international trade of amphibians, as infected animals can introduce the disease to new regions.

Clinical Signs

Chytridiomycosis, or BD, can cause a range of clinical signs in amphibians. These signs can be highly variable and may include lethargy, loss of appetite, abnormal posture, skin ulcers, and discoloration or sloughing of the skin. In some species, BD can cause rapid and extensive mortality, leading to population declines and even extinctions. Other species may be asymptomatic carriers of the fungus, allowing the disease to spread through populations without obvious signs of illness.

The severity of clinical signs can vary depending on a number of factors, including the species of amphibian, the strain of the fungus, and environmental conditions. For example, higher temperatures and low humidity can exacerbate clinical signs and mortality rates in infected individuals. Juvenile amphibians and those with compromised immune systems are often more susceptible to severe forms of the disease.

It is important to note that clinical signs alone are not always indicative of chytridiomycosis, as they can be similar to those of other diseases or environmental stressors. Therefore, laboratory testing is necessary for definitive diagnosis of BD. Early detection and management of infected individuals, as well as implementation of preventative measures, are crucial for the conservation of amphibian populations affected by chytridiomycosis.


Diagnosing BD can be challenging, as the clinical signs can be similar to those of other diseases. The most common method for diagnosis is through the use of skin swabs, which are tested for the presence of the fungus using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques.


There is no known cure for BD, and treatments are limited. Some antifungal drugs have been shown to be effective in reducing the number of fungi on infected animals, but they do not cure the disease. One of the most effective methods for managing the disease is through strict biosecurity measures, including quarantining infected animals and decontaminating equipment and surfaces.


Preventing the spread of chytridiomycosis is the primary management strategy, and various methods have been proposed, including implementing quarantine measures, practicing good hygiene, using fungicides, and limiting the movement of animals between locations. Captive breeding programs have also been successful in maintaining and restoring populations of some species affected by chytridiomycosis.

One potential management strategy involves the use of probiotics, which are beneficial bacteria that can outcompete Bd for resources and reduce its growth. However, more research is needed to determine the effectiveness of probiotics as a management tool for chytridiomycosis.

Efforts to control the spread of chytridiomycosis require cooperation between researchers, wildlife managers, and other stakeholders. Education and outreach programs can help increase awareness of the disease and promote best practices for preventing its spread.

In addition, monitoring programs can help detect new outbreaks and track changes in the distribution and abundance of amphibian populations. This information is crucial for making informed management decisions and evaluating the effectiveness of management strategies.

Ultimately, the conservation of amphibians affected by chytridiomycosis requires a multifaceted approach that incorporates prevention, treatment, and monitoring efforts. By working together, researchers, wildlife managers, and other stakeholders can help mitigate the impacts of this devastating disease and ensure the long-term survival of amphibian populations worldwide.


In conclusion, chytridiomycosis (BD) is a fungal disease that has been devastating amphibian populations around the world. It’s one of several diseases that primarily impact amphibians. The emergence of BD highlights the importance of understanding the complex interactions between pathogens, hosts, and the environment. While there is currently no cure for the disease, there are several management strategies that have been effective in reducing its impact. However, more research is needed to fully understand the transmission, clinical signs, and treatment of the disease.

Furthermore, efforts should be made to prevent the spread of the disease through biosecurity measures, such as limiting the movement of amphibians and equipment between infected and uninfected areas. By working together, scientists, conservationists, and policy-makers can work towards mitigating the impacts of BD and protecting the valuable biodiversity of amphibian species.


  1. Skerratt, L. F., Berger, L., Speare, R., Cashins, S., McDonald, K. R., Phillott, A. D., & Hines, H. B. (2007). Spread of chytridiomycosis has caused the rapid global decline and extinction of frogs. Ecohealth, 4(2), 125-134. doi: 10.1007/s10393-007-0093-5
  2. Voyles, J., Berger, L., Young, S., Speare, R., Skerratt, L. F., & Warner, J. (2009). Electrolyte depletion and osmotic imbalance in amphibians with chytridiomycosis. Diseases of Aquatic Organisms, 84(2), 113-118. doi: 10.3354/dao02029
  3. Greenspan, S. E., Roznik, E. A., Schwarzkopf, L., Alford, R. A., & Pike, D. A. (2017). Infection increases vulnerability to climate change via effects on host thermal tolerance. Scientific Reports, 7(1), 9349. doi: 10.1038/s41598-017-08945-5
  4. Lips, K. R., Brem, F., Brenes, R., Reeve, J. D., Alford, R. A., Voyles, J., & Carey, C. (2006). Emerging infectious disease and the loss of biodiversity in a Neotropical amphibian community. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 103(9), 3165-3170. doi: 10.1073/pnas.0506889103
  5. Daszak, P., Berger, L., Cunningham, A. A., Hyatt, A. D., Green, D. E., & Speare, R. (1999). Emerging infectious diseases and amphibian population declines. Emerging Infectious Diseases, 5(6), 735-748. doi: 10.3201/eid0506.990601

Further Reading:

  1. Skerratt, L. F., Berger, L., Hines, H. B., McDonald, K. R., Mendez, D., Phillott, A. D., . . . Speare, R. (2008). Survey protocol for detecting chytridiomycosis in all Australian frog populations. Dis Aquat Organ, 80(2), 85-94. doi: 10.3354/dao01931
  2. Bosch, J., Martinez-Solano, I., Garcia-Paris, M., & Marquez, R. (2001). Evidence of a chytrid fungus infection involved in the decline of the common midwife toad (Alytes obstetricans) in protected areas of central Spain. Biological Conservation, 97(3), 331-337. doi: 10.1016/S0006-3207(00)00139-6
  3. Skerratt, L. F., Skerratt, J. H., Banks, S., Martin, R., & Hunter, D. (2007). Disease outbreak associated with an unusual complex of clinical signs in a population of free-living cane toads (Bufo marinus) in Australia. Australian Veterinary Journal, 85(5), 188-193. doi: 10.1111/j.1751-0813.2007.00157.x
  4. Goka, K., Yokoyama, J., Une, Y., Kuro